Saturday, March 14, 2020
Organizational Behavior and Design Essays
Organizational Behavior and Design Essays Organizational Behavior and Design Essay Organizational Behavior and Design Essay 1998). Johnson (1997) found a positive relationship between Extroversion and job performance of police personnel, and explained this relationship in terms of the high level of interaction in the police service. Agreeableness An agreeable person is fundamentally altruistic, sympathetic to others and eager to help them, and in return believes that others will be equally helpful. The disagreeable/antagonistic person is egocentric, skeptical of others intentions, and competitive rather than co-operative. According to Teeth et al. (1991 Agreeableness is a significant predictor Of job performance. Salad (1997) found that Agreeableness is related to training success. The co-operative nature of agreeable individuals may lead to success in occupations where teamwork and customer service are relevant (ledge et al. , 1999). Conscientiousness Conscientiousness refers to self-control and the active process of planning, organizing and carrying out tasks (Barrack Mount, 1993). The conscientious person is purposeful, strong-willed and determined. Conscientiousness is manifested in achievement orientation (hardworking and persistent), dependability (responsible and careful) and orderliness (planned and organized). On the negative side, high Conscientiousness may lead to annoying fastidiousness, compulsive neatness or workaholic behavior. Low scorers may not necessarily lack moral principles, but they are less exacting in applying them. Barman, White, Pulaski and People (1991) and Hough et al. (1990) found a correlation of 0,80 between reliability (an aspect of Conscientiousness) and job performance. Various researchers (Barrack Mount, 1991; Barrack, Mount Strauss, 1993; Rink Ferns, 1999) reported significant correlations between Conscientiousness and job performance. According to Jackets and Weaned (1 996), the relationship teens Conscientiousness and job performance could be attributed to the conceptual relationship between Conscientiousness and integrity. Furthermore, autonomy and goal setting influence the relationship between Conscientiousness and job performance (Barrack Mount, 1993; Barrack et al. , 1993) Emotionally stability (often labeled by its converse, neurotics) this dimension taps a persons ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed and insecure. Neurotics is a dimension of normal personality indicating the general tendency to experience negative effects such as fear, sadness, embarrassment, anger, guilt and disgust. High scorers may be at risk of some kinds of psychiatric problems. A high Neurotics score indicates that a person is prone to having irrational ideas, being less able to control impulses, and coping poorly with stress. A low Neurotics score is indicative of emotional stability. These people are usually calm, even-tempered, relaxed and able to face stressful situations without becoming upset (Hough et al. , 990). HÃ ¶Raman and Massacre (1996) found that Neurotics is a predictor of performance in various occupations. Dunn, Mount, Barrack and Ones (1995) showed that emotional stability (the opposite of Neurotics) is the second most important characteristic that affects the employability of candidates. In a recent study Judge, Higgins, Theories and Barrack (1999) found that Neurotics is inversely related to job performance. However, according to Salad (1 997), Neurotics predicts job performance in certain circumstances. Openness to Experience Openness to Experience includes active imagination, aesthetic sensitivity, attentiveness to inner feelings, a preference for variety, intellectual curiosity and independence of judgment. People scoring low on Openness tend to be conventional in behavior and conservative in outlook. They prefer the familiar to the novel, and their emotional responses are somewhat muted. People scoring high on Openness tend to be unconventional, willing to question authority and prepared to entertain new ethical, social and political ideas. Open individuals are curious about both inner and outer worlds, and their lives are experientially richer. They are willing to entertain novel ideas and unconventional values, and they experience both positive and negative emotions more keenly than do closed individuals. Research has shown that Openness to Experience is related to success in consulting (Hamilton, 1 988), training (Barrack Mount, 1991 ; Pincher et al. , 1998) and adapting to change. In contrast, Johnson (1997) found that successful employees (compared with unsuccessful employees) obtained significantly lower Scores on Openness. Teeth et al. (1 991 ) reported that Openness to Experience is not a valid predictor of job performance. A Seibel explanation for the contradictory results regarding the relationship between Openness to Experience and job performance is that different jobs have different requirements. In conclusion, according to the Social Science Dictionary, emotional stability is individuals steadiness of mood, their ability to withstand minor setbacks, failures, difficulties, and other stresses without becoming upset emotionally. Emotionally stable persons tolerate minor stresses and strains of day to day living without becoming emotionally upset, anxious, nervous, tense, or angry. They are able to maintain composure under minor emotional stress. They are fairly constant in their basic mood, and they generally revert quickly to that state following those occasions when they have experienced considerable stress or have been exceptionally provoked which may be a frequent case in serving Hotel customers. The unstable person, on the other hand, is subject to fairly wide, frequent, and often unpredictable mood shifts that may swing from pole to pole. Simply put, emotional stability refers to a persons ability to remain calm or even keel when faced with pressure or stress. Someone who is emotionally unstable is more volatile, which means the person faces an increased risk of exacting with violent or harmful behaviors when provoked. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be neo. us, anxious, depressed, and insecure. A workers emotional state influences customer service, which influences levels of repeat business and levels of customer satisfaction. Providing quality customer service makes demands on employees because it often puts them in a state of emotional dissonance. Over time, this state can lead to job burnout, declines in job performance, and lower job satisfaction. In addition, employees emotions may also be transferred to the customer. Studies indicate a matching effect between employee and customer emotions, which B practitioners call emotional contagion, the catching of emotions from others. How does emotional contagion work? The primary explanation is that when someone experiences positive emotions and laughs and smiles at you, you begin to copy that persons behavior. So when employees express positive emotions, customers tend to respond positively. Emotional contagion is important because when customers catch the positive moods Or emotions of employees, they feel encouraged to visit again. The verse also works in case of negative emotions and moods. When an employee is cranky or nasty, these negative emotions tend to have negative effects on customers. 2. Your management team is made up of people who are very different in their lifestyles and their stages of life. Metastases is a 23-year-old single parent who is working for minimum wage. Yanks is 60 years old, extremely wealthy and works because he enjoys it. Hellion earns a good living. She is single, 45 years old and has few interests outside of the office. You have decided to attempt to apply Masons hierarchy of needs to determine what motivates each Of these individuals. What is the need that you would expect that each is trying to satisfy? Discuss Measles Hierarchy of Needs (often represented as a pyramid with five levels of needs) is a motivational theory in psychology that argues that while people aim to meet basic needs, they seek to meet successively higher needs in the form of a pyramid. According to Masons hierarchy of needs, framed by A. Moscow, a U. S. Numismatic psychologist, it was explained that different human needs have different level of satisfaction. The hierarchy moves up from lower order needs such as physiological needs, safety and security, social needs to higher order hat is esteem needs and self-actualization needs. Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied. Abraham H. Moscow felt as though conditioning theories did not adequately capture the complexity Of human behavior. In a 1943 paper called A Theory of Human Motivation, Moscow presented the idea that human actions are directed toward goal attainment. Any given behavior could satisfy several functions at the same time. Measles Hierarchy of Needs has often been represented in a hierarchical pyramid with five levels. The four levels (lower order needs) are considered histological needs, while the top level of the pyramid is considered growth needs. The lower level needs must be satisfied before higher order needs can influence behavior. The levels are as follows: Physiological Needs These are needs required to sustain life, such as: air, water, nourishment, sleep. According to Measles theory, if such needs are not satisfied then ones motivation will arise from the quest to satisfy them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not felt until one has met the needs basic to ones bodily functioning. Safety Once physiological needs are met, On?s attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm. Such needs might be fulfilled by living in a safe area, medical insurance, job security, financial reserves and the like. According to Masons hierarchy, if a person feels that he or she is in harms way, higher needs will not receive much attention. Social Needs Once a person has met the level physiological and safety needs, higher level needs become important, the first of which are social needs. Social needs are those related to interaction with other people and may include: need for friends, need for belonging, and need to give and receive love. Esteem Once a person feels a sense of belonging, the need to feel important arises. Esteem needs may be classified as internal or external. Internal esteem needs are those related to self-esteem such as self-respect and achievement. External esteem needs are those such as social status and recognition. Some esteem needs are: Self-respect, achievement, attention, recognition, and reputation. Self-actualization is the summit of Measles hierarchy of needs. It is the quest of reaching ones full potential as a person. Unlike lower level needs, this need is never fully satisfied; as one grows psychologically there are always new opportunities to continue to grow. Self-actualities people tend to have needs such as: Truth, Justice, Wisdom, Meaning. Self-actualities persons have frequent occurrences of peak experiences, which are energize moments of profound happiness and harmony. According to Moscow, only a small percentage of the population reaches the level of self-actualization. From the given information in the above question, and the details of the Measles theory, Metastases, who is a 23-year-old single parent working for minimum wage, is trying to satisfy his/her physiological needs. Had it not men for this specific need he/she would have not worked for a minimum wage. She could have been searching for a higher paying job if its physiological needs were satisfied. Yanks, who is 60 years old, extremely wealthy and is working because he enjoys it is trying to fulfill his self-actualization needs. The fact that he goes to work for enjoyment shows that he has a choice not to work at all as all his other needs are satisfied. On the other hand, Hellion who earns a good living, is single, 45 years old and who has few interests outside of the office is tying to satisfy her Esteem needs. She might be looking for social recognition or achievement. Then. Vise it is shown that she earns a good living and also has few interests outside of the office. 3. You manage a department of five employees. You have identified that Joe scores high in the need for achievement, Mary scores high in the need for power, and Tim scores high in the need for affiliation. Sarah scored high in the need for power and low in the need for affiliation. Doug scores low in both need for power and need for affiliation. A. Which employee would be best suited to a challenging new assignment where they would receive rapid dieback? B. And who would probably be best to leave in charge while you are on vacation? Support your answer with sufficient reason. In the early sass, Abraham Moscow created his theory of needs . This identified the basic needs that human beings have, in order of their importance: physiological needs, safety needs, and the needs for belonging self-esteem and self-actualization. Later, David McClellan built on this work in his 1 961 book, The Achieving Society. He identified three motivators that he believed we all have: a need for achievement, a need for affiliation, and a need for power. People will have different characteristics depending on their dominant motivator. According to McClellan, these motivators are learned (which is why this theory is sometimes called the Learned Needs Theory). McClellan says that, regardless of our gender, culture, or age, we all have three motivating drivers, and one of these will be our dominant motivating driver. This dominant motivator is largely dependent on our culture and life experiences. These characteristics are as follows: Dominant Motivator Characteristics of This Person Achievement Has a strong need to set and accomplish challenging goals. Takes calculated risks to accomplish their goals. Likes to receive regular feedback on their progress and achievements. Often likes to work alone. Affiliation Wants to belong to the group. Wants to be liked, and will often go along with whatever the rest of the group wants to do. Favors collaboration over competition. Doesnt like high risk or uncertainty. Power Wants to control and influence others. Likes to win arguments. Enjoys competition and winning. Enjoys status and recognition. Managing a group of people with different personalities is never easy. But if we are managing or leading a team, it is essential to know what motivates our people, how they respond to feedback and praise, and what tasks fit them well. David Miscellanys Human Motivation Theory gives us a way of identifying peoples motivating drivers. This can then help us on how to give praise and feedback effectively, assign them suitable tasks, and keep them motivated. Therefore, using this theory we can match people to jobs. Let us take a closer look at how to manage these team members who are driven by each of Miscellanys three motivators: Achievement people motivated by achievement need challenging, but not impossible, projects. They thrive on overcoming difficult problems or situations. People motivated by achievement work very effectively either alone or with other high achievers. When providing feedback, give achievers a fair and balanced appraisal. They want to know what theyre doing right -? and wrong -? so that they can improve. Affiliation People motivated by affiliation work best in a group environment and therefore it is best to integrate them with a team (versus working alone) whenever possible. They also do not like uncertainty and risk. Therefore, when assigning projects or tasks, we have to save the risky ones for other people. When providing feedback to these people, we need to be arsenal. It is still important to give balanced feedback, but if we start our appraisal by emphasizing their good working relationship and our trust in them, they will likely be more open to what we say. These people often do not want to stand out, so it might be best to praise them in private rather than in front of others. Power Those with a high need for power work best when they are in charge. Because they enjoy competition, they do well with goal-oriented projects or tasks. They may also be very effective in negotiations or in situations in which another party must be convinced of an idea or goal. When providing feedback, we need to be direct with these team members and keep them motivated by helping them further their career goals . In conclusion, those high on achievement like Joe, tend to prefer jobs with personal responsibility, feedback and moderate risks. They DO NOT always care about motivating others! Therefore, given the information in the above question We can conclude that Joe would be best suited to a challenging new assignment where he would receive rapid feedback. He had scored high in the need for achievement which means that he would strive to succeed no matter how challenging the job would be. In general, individuals high on the need for Power and low on the need for Affiliation tend to perform better in managerial roles. Thus, Sarah who had the same result as above would be the best to be left in charge while the Manager is on vacation. 4. Your colleagues at work are constantly talking about the manager in your organization. He is perceived throughout the organization as a ruthless man who is not to be antagonized. It is necessary for you to bring him a report, and you are very nervous about having to deal with him. What seems the Managers major base of power? Why? ND what is the most likely reason for the success of this manger? Explain. Power refers to the possession of authority and influence over others. Power is a tool that, depending on how it is used, can lead to either positive or negative outcomes in an organization. In 1959, American sociologists John French and Bertram Raven published an article, The Bases of Power, thats regarded as the basis for classifying power in organizations. They identified five sources of power, namely: Legitimate, Expert, Referent, Reward, and Coercive, power. Legitimate Power Legitimate power is also known as positional power. Its derived from the position a person holds in an organizations hierarchy. Job descriptions, for example, require junior workers to report to managers and give managers the power to assign duties to their juniors. For positional power to be exercised effectively, the person wielding it must be deemed to have earned it legitimately. An example of legitimate power is that held by a companys CEO. Expert power Knowledge is power. Expert power is derived from possessing knowledge or expertise in a particular area. Such people are highly valued by organizations for their problem solving skills. People who have expert power perform critical tasks and are therefore deemed indispensable. The opinions, ideas and decisions of people with expert power are held in high regard by other employees and hence greatly influence their actions. Possession of expert power is normally a stepping stone to other sources of power such as legitimate power. For example, a person who holds expert power can be promoted to senior management, thereby giving him legitimate power. Referent Power Referent power is derived from the interpersonal relationships that a person cultivates with other people in the organization. people possess reference power when Others respect and like them. Referent power arises from charisma, as the charismatic person influences others Via the admiration, respect and trust others have for her. Referent power is also derived from personal connections that a person has with key people in the organizations hierarchy, such as the CEO. Its the perception of the personal relationships that she has that generates her power over others. Reward Power Reward power arises from the ability of a person to influence the allocation of incentives in an organization. These incentives include salary increments, positive appraisals and promotions. In an organization, people who wield reward power tend to influence the actions of other employees. Reward power, if used well, greatly motivates employees. But if its applied through favoritism, reward power can greatly demoralize employees and diminish their output. Coercive Power Coercive power is derived from a persons ability to influence others via threats, punishments or sanctions. A junior staff member may work late to meet a deadline to avoid disciplinary action from his boss. Coercive power is, therefore, a persons ability to punish, fire or reprimand another employee. Coercive power helps control the behavior of employees by ensuring that they adhere to the organizations policies and norms. Coercive power rests in the ability of a manager to force an employee to comply with an order through the threat of punishment. Coercive power typically leads to short-term compliance, but in the long-run produces dysfunctional behavior. Coercion reduces employees satisfaction with their jobs, leading to lack of commitment and general employee withdrawal. Given the information in the question above, the Managers major base of power is Coercive power. The most likely reason for the success of this manager is hat his subordinates fear negative sanctions if they fail to comply. Case Questions case 1 Differing Perceptions at Coloration Industries Susan Harrington continued to drum her fingers on her desk. She had a real problem and wasnt sure what to do next. She had a lot of confidence in Jack Reed, but she suspected she was about the last person in the office who did. Perhaps if she ran through the entire story again in her mind she would see the solution. Susan had been distribution manager for Coloration Industries for almost twenty years. An early brush with the law and a short stay in prison ad made her realize the importance of honesty and hard work. Henry Coloration had given her a chance despite her record, and Susan had made the most of it. She now Was one of the most respected managers in the company. Few people knew her background. Susan had hired Jack Reed fresh out of prison six months ago. Susan understood how Jack felt when Jack tried to explain his past and asked for another chance. Susan decided to give him that chance just as Henry Coloration had given her one. Jack eagerly accepted a job on the loading docks and could soon load a truck as fast as anyone in the crew. Things had gone well at first. Everyone seemed to like Jack, and he made several new friends. Susan had been vaguely disturbed about two months ago, however, when another dock worker reported his wallet missing. She confronted Jack about this and was reassured when Jack understood her concern and earnestly but calmly asserted his innocence. Susan was especially relieved when the wallet was found a few days later. The events Of last week, however, had caused serious trouble. First, a new personnel clerk had come across records about Jacks past while updating employee files. Assuming that the information was common knowledge, the clerk had mentioned to several employees what a good thing it was to give ex-convicts like Jack a chance. The next day, someone in bookkeeping discovered some money missing from petty cash. Another worker claimed to have seen Jack in the area around the office strongbox, which was open during working hours, earlier that same day. Most people assumed Jack was the thief. Even the worker whose wallet had been misplaced suggested that perhaps Jack had indeed stolen it but had returned it when questioned. Several employees had approached Susan and requested that Jack be fired.